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Posts Tagged ‘1-2-insertion

Migratory Insertion: 1,2-Insertions

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Insertions of π systems into M-X bonds are appealing in the sense that they establish two new σ bonds in one step, in a stereocontrolled manner. As we saw in the last post, however, we should take care to distinguish these fully intramolecular migratory insertions from intermolecular attack of a nucleophile or electrophile on a coordinated π-system ligand. The reverse reaction of migratory insertion, β-elimination, is not the same as the reverse of nucleophilic or electrophilic attack on a coordinated π system.

1,2-Insertion is dinstinct from nucleophilic/electrophilic attack on coordinated ligands.

1,2-Insertion is dinstinct from nucleophilic/electrophilic attack on coordinated ligands.

Like 1,1-insertions, 1,2-insertions generate a vacant site on the metal, which is usually filled by external ligand. For unsymmetrical alkenes, it’s important to think about site selectivity: which atom of the alkene will end up bound to metal, and which to the other ligand? To make predictions about site selectivity we can appeal to the classic picture of the M–X bond as M+X. Asymmetric, polarized π ligands contain one atom with excess partial charge; this atom hooks up with the complementary atom in the M–R bond during insertion. Resonance is our best friend here!

The site selectivity of 1,2-insertion can be predicted using resonance forms and partial charges.

The site selectivity of 1,2-insertion can be predicted using resonance forms and partial charges.

A nice study by Yu and Spencer illustrates these effects in homogeneous palladium- and rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation reactions. Unactivated alkenes generally exhibit lower site selectivity than activated ones, although steric differences between the two ends of the double bond can promote selectivity. Read the rest of this entry »